Thursday, May 21, 2020
For this assignment I will explain the effect of personality and motivation on sports performance. Introduction Personality is the sum of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s individual characteristics that make him/her unique. (Adams et al, 2010) A personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality determines how they react in certain situations, their general mood and the consistency of it and their emotions. Personality can affect many aspects of sport right from the selection process because as well as raw talent, coaches need performers to have good mentality to be able to reach their required potential. Personality theories There are four main personality theories, these are the different ideas behind where individuals get there personalities from. I will explain three ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If he receives a card for the offence more often, then he will be less likely to dive due to the punishment stopping him from playing and getting him into trouble with both his manager and the football association he is playing under. I agree with the social learning theory as it helps young athletes to learn important traits from older athletes such as their professionalism and sportsmanship both on and off the field. This could be in football when an injury has occurred but play is continuing so the opposing team kick the ball out of play for the injured player to receive treatment. On the other hand it can also cause young athletes to pick up bad habits from others. This could be a lack of sportsmanship such as fights in a game of football or swearing at the opposing team. This could cause young athletes to feel this is acceptable behaviour for an athlete. Situational theory Situational theory is when athletes base their actions depending on the environment and situation they are placed. This theory can suggest that if an athlete is in a pressured environment or situation it can sometimes cause a player to react in an irrational manner which can have a serious negative effect on their performance. This can also have a positive effect on some athletes who thrive under pressure and it can cause them to play to their highest level. Someone I feel suffered from this particular theory is Zinedine Zidane, A former French InternationalShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Personality And Motivation On Sports Performance3716 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesI am going to talk about the effects of personality and motivation on sports performance and I will do this by looking at the different theories relating to sports performance and how sports athletes deal with the effects of personality and motivation in sports performances. What is personality and how does it affect sports performance? Personality is the sum of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s individual characteristics that make him/her unique. (Adams et al, 2010) A personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality determines how they react inRead MorePsychological Factor That Affect Sports Performance997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespsychological factor that can affect sports performance and is defined as the level of activation or readiness that an individual will experience when faced with a task (Malpeli 2010, pg. 369). Effective performance requires an athlete to achieve optimal arousal which can be recognised in certain arousal theories (Malpeli 2010, pg. 369). The level of arousal that is considered to be optimal varies among every individual (Abernethy 2013, pg. 304). High arousal can affect performance as it often leads to moreRead MoreChildhood Depression : A Serious Disease That Affects People Of All Genders And Ages1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDepression is a serious disease that affects people of all genders and ages, but there are many ways to c ope with depression. Evert and McGillivray (2014) studied the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on the presence of depression symptoms, anxiety, and stress in males and females with autism. People with autism tend to experience greater levels of depression, anxiety, and stress than those without autism. Cognitive behavioral therapy includes several sessions addressing issues such as identifyingRead MoreMotivation in Sport1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKnow the effects of motivation on sports performance Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the internal state which tends to direct a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour towards a goal.Ã¢â¬ - (Kent, 1994) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦motivation has been seen as having two aspects: it is what drives IÃ¢â¬â¢d to do things Ã¢â¬ ¦and it makes us do particular things.Ã¢â¬ -(Woods, 1988) Motivation can influence decisions, learning and performance in sport. If a performer is not in a positive psychological state, mistakes will be made in the performance, and they will not perform atRead MorePersonality and Motivation Leaflet3258 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesPersonality Ã¢â¬â the sums of the characteristics that make a person uniqueÃ¢â¬â BTEC NATIONAL SPORT Personality Ã¢â¬â the sums of the characteristics that make a person uniqueÃ¢â¬â BTEC NATIONAL SPORT 1)Martens Schematic view. 2) The Psycho dynamic theory 3)Trait Theory 4) Situational approach 5) Interactional theory 1)Martens Schematic view. 2) The Psycho dynamic theory 3)Trait Theory 4) Situational approach 5) Interactional theory There are a number of theories and approaches that have beenRead MoreUnderstanding Personality1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunderstanding of personality in terms of Theories, structure and testing, looking at Trait, situation and interactional theories in particular. Every individual has a unique personality, which is known as their psychological makeup. This is known as the relatively stable, psychological structures that shape a personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions in a specific environment. (Gill, 1986) This essay will look at the established theoretical psychological understand of personalities. Where did sports psychology begin? Sport psychologyRead MoreMotivation and Personality2985 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesSports psychology Personality and Motivation. P1. Personality is the sum of those characteristics that make a person unique. Personality has been defined as an individuals characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, behaviour, together with the psychological mechanisms. Personality has many different characteristics that make an individual different to others these can be positive and negative for example being shy can be a negative effect on sport as you donÃ¢â¬â¢t give yourself enough motivationRead MoreAnalysis Of Marten s Schematic View Essay2402 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAssignment 1 MartenÃ¢â¬â¢s schematic view This theory sees personality to be seen as having three different levels that linked to each other, these personality views are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Psychological core Ã¢â¬ ¢ Typical responses Ã¢â¬ ¢ Role-related behaviour Psychological core is what people frequently say is the real you and is the piece of you that contains your beliefs, values, attitudes and what you like ; all of these are relatively constant and stable. Common responses are the way that you react to the worldRead More Maslow Essay1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs amp; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Introduction Like in sports, in business the performance of team is not just based on the individual talents. It is also, and maybe even more, based on the global efficiency of the team. To be efficient, a team leader needs to ensure that all the team players are pulling at the same rope, towards the same direction. That first step ensures that all the energy that is spent, is used in favor of the objective and not against it. A secondRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Learning1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Motivation and Learning Dillan Watts Chapman UniversityMotivation and Learning In 1874, Charles Darwin first stated human beings principal motives were based upon survival and reproduction. Emotions are often interrelated fluctuating human behavior, confirming motives are more than just biological responses (Yake and Patry, 2014). A broad way to classify motives is in two categories: deficiency and learned motives. Some psychologists distinguish this through motivated reasoning and rationality
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It is very normal in the cities that shown these crime rates have been rapidly increasing. Usually it has been occurred in rural or urban areas. Increase of population in urban shows poverty, unstable, underdevelopment, deficiency and lack of housing areas. Theses can also affect teens that increase-doing crimes in which it called juvenile delinquency. There are two terms that define juvenile delinquency, 1: conduct by a juvenile characterized by antisocial behavior that is a beyond parental control and therefore subject to legal action; 2: a violation of law committed by a juvenile and not punishable by death or live imprisonment. (Cite). In this topic, I will explain more about family factors in which it has major influence on teens such as the way parents discipline a child, parental conflict or separation, parental abuse or neglect or criminal parents or siblings. What has causes children to act out? It could be because they want some attention or misbehave when they are afraid. They misbehave when they also feel bad about themselves and learn bad behaviors by copying you. There will be four articles that I summarized that related with juvenile and give out some resources to prevent juvenile delinquency. The family home conditions are one of the reasons why teens have become juvenile delinquency. These are poverty and unemployment, material deficiencies, broken homes, immoral and delinquent parents, lack of parental care and affection and bad example. The poverty andShow MoreRelatedWhy Marijuana Is The Common Juvenile Crime Performed By The Youth1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Based on the report of Global Youth Justice Organization, the misuse of marijuana is the common juvenile crime performed by the youth. Marijuana abuse was ranked to be #6 in their list. Teens are being involved to marijuana use for diverse reasons and this includes poor supervision and communication of parents, family problems, lack of self- discipline, lack of discipline from parents or guardians, and family history of marijuana or drug abuse. Other risk factors would be physical and sexual abuseRead MoreDrug Abuse And Its Effects On The Criminal Justice System900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDespite all of the efforts p ut fourth in attempting to better educate and stop drug use in America studies show that drug use by juveniles has substantially increased within recent years. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) juveniles as young as eighth grade are using drugs such as marijuana on a daily basis. Unfortunately, most of these juveniles have also experimented with alcohol at this age as a gateway drug to start using marijuana and so forth. (NIDA) There are many aspectsRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency : The Common Poor Parenting, Socioeconomic Status And Peer Pressure Essay1659 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJuvenile delinquency is one of the most complex, interesting and challenging phenomena in Trinidad and Tobago. In recent years there have been a high proportion of juvenile males being arrested and remanded at the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s youth facilities. In 2013, 106 young males were sent to the Youth Training Centre (YTC), for various offences, (Ministry of Justice, 2013). Among these, 25% wer e arrested for murder, 16% for possession of drugs, 14% for robbery, 3% for breaching of school rules and 6% were beyondRead MoreThe Effect Of Drugs On Juveniles961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Effects of Drugs on Juveniles The growth of juveniles using and selling drugs has expanded tremendously over the years. The use of drugs by juveniles has affected juveniles academically, in relationships, health, and the rise in delinquency. Juveniles experimenting drugs often lead to long term use, and is often used in adulthood. It has been found through studies, that the rise in juveniles and drugs have significantly grown more rapidly than the rise in adults. Crime rates has risenRead MoreFemale Youth And The Juvenile System Essay903 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFemales in the Juvenile System In beginning my research on females in the juvenile justice system, I was shocked to see how many of the new female juvenile statistics had increased and were gradually catching up on the juvenile male statistics. The numbers have been growing every year, and may soon surpass the numbers the boys have held for so many years. It makes me sit back and wonder what in the world is going on with our female youth in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society to cause such a slight, in some casesRead MoreCauses and Solution of Juvenile Delinquency in America Essay1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesevery year the FBI arrests more than 3300 young adults under the age of 18Ã¢â¬ (Khan).Juvenile delinquency can be caused by the influence gangs,bullying, and bad parenting. This topic caught my attention because there a lot of kids getting arrested each year for crimes committed and kids getting involved in gangs, also kids getting access to weapons,drugs, or getting bully by other people. However juvenile delinquency can be prevented by offering bullying prevention, violence prevention curriculumsRead MoreThe Effects Of Juvenile Delinquency On The Criminal Justice System1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat crime is being exposed and done by minors. Juvenile delinquency has impacted the criminal justice system in various ways. It has grown over the past years and many do not know how it evolved. For once, family structure can affect juvenile delinquency in numerous of ways. The independent variable is family structure and the dependent variable is juvenile delinquency. Home environment does indeed play a role in the production of juvenile delinquency. Kierkus and Hewitt (2009) in The ContextualRead MoreFamily Structure And Juvenile Delinquency1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescrime is mostly known as juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency is defined as young adults, people under eighteen, braking or violating the law (Websters). Family structure can affect juvenile delinquency in numerous ways. Family structure can include family support system, home environment, and family unity. The independent variable is family structure and the dependent variable is juvenile delinquency. Home environment plays a role in the production of juvenile delinquency. Kierkus and HewittRead MoreFamily Structure And Juvenile Delinquency1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof crimes committed by minors. Family structure can affect juvenile delinquency in numerous ways. The independent variable is family structure and the dependent variable is juvenile delinquency. Home environment plays a role in the production of juvenile delinquency. Kierkus and Hewitt (2009) in The Contextual Nature of the Family Structure/Delinquency relationship discussed how family structure is an important factor in delinquency but there might also be other factors that influence this typeRead MoreJuvenile System1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdelinquent crimes. Focusing on what spawns delinquency in juveniles today, parenting is essential. During my visit to family court with fellow classmates I was honored to observe real live cases involving teenagers, and their parents. It was obvious that one main issue in the U.S. Juvenile Delinquency system is the lack of family structure. Family and delinquent relationships interconnect, ultimately, resulting to the core of delinquency. The articles Ã¢â¬Å"Juvenile Delinquency and Family StructureÃ¢â¬ , by Anika Doggett
Although most historians say that pre-history is not important, it is actually very important because that is where it all started. Paleolithic Age, which refers to the hunting and gathering way of life, is 95% of the human history. 100,000 years ago, Homo sapiens started using tools to manipulate their surroundings, and migrating and adapting to new environments. We will write a custom essay sample on Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now They traveled to Eurasia, Australia, Western hemisphere, and the Pacific islands. Then they started farming, which lead to an era with more technology, surplus, and time to think. The Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Revolution was an important beginning to the human history. A lot happened during the Paleolithic Age. Technological innovations, such as stone blades and tools made out of bones were created, along with the controlling of fire. Some people argue because there was no surplus and there was no specialization, life was more egalitarian back then. Men and women were thought to have a more equal relationship. Even then people were spiritual, marking their existence, and was trying to control natural forces with supernatural forces. Forces of nature beyond their control was feared. When people started migrating, people learned and invented ways to adapt to their environment. They started communicating through language, and in the Americas, it is evident from the discovery of Clovis point that people communicated in a large area. At the end of the Ice Age, the warmer and wetter climate made it easier to settle down, which lead to the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic Revolution was when people started farming all over the world. This gave them surplus, which made them settle down, which eventually lead to villages, cities, empires, and civilizations. But this also meant a more concentrated power to the elite men who forced the labor system, thus more stratified. Pastoralism also developed, which was the domestication of animals. Animals were used for not only meat purposes now but also for transportation, power, and manure. The pastoralists and agricultural people would later conflict due to competition for land. Agriculture all depended on availability. In the Fertile Crescent, a variety of plants and animals were available for domestication. But in the Mesoamerica, only corn/maize was available, but it also lead to the first genetic engineering. More sophisticated tools were invented, and people tried to control nature by the deliberate selection of plants. Humans started impacting the environment a lot. Agricultural diffusion occurred, where language and ideas spread to other parts of the world. Overall, the Neolithic Revolution lead to increase in human population, new technologies (pottery, metallurgy, secondary products), new diseases spreading, difficulty to move when something disastrous (crop failures) happens, chiefdoms, and settlements. The Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Revolution was when Ã¢â¬Å"Homo sapiensÃ¢â¬ became Ã¢â¬Å"humans. Ã¢â¬ It was the base of a new era, the Industrial Era, which is when humans dominate the world for good or for bad. But it all certainly started when humans first started using tools, and started farming all over the world. How to cite Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Revolution, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Research Paper on Tilapia Essay Tilapia is a common name designating fishes of the Cichlidae family. This brand name comes from the Latin form of thiape, a word that means Ã¢â¬Å"fishÃ¢â¬ in bechouana Ã¢â¬â an African language. It includes three genera within cichlids: Oreochromis, Tilapia, and Sarotherodon. They originate in Africa and Near or Middle East. The size varies between 5 and 50 centimeters. These fresh or brackish fishes water are bred and consumed widely in the world. The first notes of the tilapia breeding go back to ancient Egypt 4,000 years ago, but its commercial exploitation begins in South Africa by Belgian and English settlers, because of meat shortages caused by World War II. After the war, researchers have discovered how to get fully male population, which grows two times faster than females and the genetic selection allowed to improve further the resistance of the fish to diseases. In 2009 tilapia is produced in more than 75 countries, the largest producers being China, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, Egypt, British, Cuba, Mexico, and Israel. To six species, the hybrids and crossbreeds must be added. It is mainly Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Java Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), also called Mozambique Tilapia. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Tilapia specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Tilapia specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Tilapia specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Some species are considered under domestication, as their breeding cycle is fully mastered. That allows to improve the quality of these species in terms of livestock through the genetic. Tilapia were introduced into many streams and rivers of Africa or Asia, often to fill an empty niche or to feed the local population. This is the case of Lates niloticus, but also that of Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in smaller scale, which have unfortunately become locally invasive species, and contributed to the extinction of indigenous species. These freshwater fishes have white firm flesh and are virtually devoid of bones. Tilapia has a taste that varies depending on the salinity of the water in which it lives. Its flavor is stronger in wild individuals. It is rich in vitamin B, in vitamin D, in selenium, and phosphorus. This lean fish contains two fatty acids of the family of omega-3, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). During pregnancy, tilapia is an excellent source of nutrients for the mother or the fetus especially in protein, vitamin D, and vitamin B12. Tilapia is one of the most consumed fish species United States. If you have chosen tilapia as a subject for your research project, we can recommend you to consult free example research paper topics on tilapia. They will help you to get the idea of the scientific writing procedure. It also can present some ideas for your future research proposals. You can find these free samples on the Web, but be carefull to choose, as there are great deal of poor-quality imitations. CAUTION! As far as you know all free research paper samples and research proposal examples about Tilapia are 100% plagiarized!!! At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research paper on Tilapia topics. Your research paper will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated Ph.D. and MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s writers only to provide students with professional research paper assistance at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all research paper details: Enjoy our professional research paper writing service!
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Professional Values Essays Professional Values Paper Professional Values Paper C. B. Bernsten, and M. A. Sanner. 2008. Care ideologies re? ected in 4 conceptions of pharmaceutical care. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 4: 332Ã¢â¬â342. Childress, J. F. , et al. 2002. Public health ethics: Mapping the terrain. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30: 170Ã¢â¬â178. Choosing health thorough pharmacy- A programme for pharmaceutical public health 2005Ã¢â¬â2015. 2005. London: Department of Health. dh. gov. uk/publications. Faculty of Public Health of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom. What is Public Health? fphm. org. uk/about_faculty/what_public_health/default. asp. Accessed August 2009. Fassett, W. E. 2007. Ethics, law and the emergence of responsibility for patient care. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 41: 1264Ã¢â¬â1267. Goodin, R. E. 1985. Protecting the vulnerable. A reanalysis of our social responsibilities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Harding, G. , and K. Taylor. 1997. Responding to change: The case of community pharmacy in Great Britain. Sociology of Health Illness 19(5): 547Ã¢â¬â560. ? Hayry, M. 2006. Public health and human values. Journal of Medical Ethics 32: 519Ã¢â¬â521. Hepler, C. D. , and L. M. Strand. 1990. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 47: 533Ã¢â¬â543. Jesson, J. , and P. Bissell. 2006. Public health and pharmacy:
Monday, March 2, 2020
Favorite House Styles in the USA Cape Cod and Ranch style houses were once the rage, but Americas tastes have changed over the past decade. Here are todays favorite house styles, according to our Dream House Survey. Mind you, this survey isnt scientific, but the results suggest some interesting trends. Readers are choosing homes homes with cozy details and a romantic flavor. Do you agree? 1. Craftsman Bungalow House Style Homey bungalows with low-pitched roofs and exposed rafters took America by storm in the early 1900s... and then faded from favor after 1930. But perhaps the style is making a comeback. Craftsman and Arts Crafts homes and bungalow homes were the most popular pick in our Dream House survey. 2. Tudor and English Country House Styles Scoring a close second in our Dream House Survey, this cozy style with half-timber details is reminiscent of Medieval English cottages and manor homes. Readers who responded to our survey were drawn to the small, diamond-paned windows and exposed wood framing found in many Tudor Revival homes. 3. Victorian Queen Anne House Styles Victorian is not actually a style, but a period in history, and Victorian architecture comes in many forms. There are the austere stick style homes, the fanciful Gothic Revival cottages,Ã and the majestic Italianates. But when people discuss Victorian architecture, they are often thinking of Americas so-called Queen AnneÃ style an elaborate, rather feminine, fashion with lavish details such as towers, wrap-around porches, bay windows, and elaborate trim. Queen Anne ranks number three in our survey, falling behind the more restrained Craftsman and Tudor styles. 4. Georgian Colonial House Styles Symmetrical, orderly Georgian houses became a prominent Colonial house style. Today, Georgian Colonial Revival is a model often imitated for elegant new homes. 5. Prairie House Styles Frank Lloyd Wright pioneered this style in Chicago at the turn of the century. Low-pitched hipped roofs give Prairie styleÃ homes the appearance of hugging the earth, and the square, often symmetrical lines suggest strength and homespun values. 6. Dreams for the Future Borrowing ideas from the past, modern-day styles take on many shapes. One imaginative reader said that he dreamed of owning a home designed for desert living. The floors, he said, would be polished concrete. Air conditioning and heat will duct through the cement slab up through sand-filled interior walls, he wrote. Sounds very modern. Desert Modern. 7. Homes for Right Now Dream houses dont have to be big. In fact. sometimes our deepest passions come in small packages. One man from Ohio has created his own dream house. The 150-year-old cottage has no electricity, so hand tools and elbow grease were used to paint the shutters, sand the floors, and decorate the rooms with an admittedly eccentric style. A quirky man with dogged independence, he writes, This was meant to be fun, not some job to be instantly done. We cant argue with that. More Top Picks A few more questions: Out of all the styles to choose from, whats your favorite? Why do you love it? Here are responses:Ã High Victorian: Queen Anne, Second Empire, and the like are a showcase of fine craftsmanship not likely to be seen on such a grand scale again. I own an original foursquare. While I appreciate the nice woodwork, its too rectilinear.I like Colonial Revival and Ranch homes, but I also like Foursquare houses because that is what my grandparents had.Arts and Crafts: As a design enthusiast, my favorite style is Arts Crafts. Its wide and low pitched roofs, use of natural materials, earth-toned color schemes, and overall craftsmanship makes the Arts Crafts style hard to ignore and almost impossible to duplicate today. Morris, Greene, Stickley (Sears Roebuck) and, to a great extent, Wright owe much of what they did for architecture in this country, to the East (Asia if Im not mistaken). From Bungalow to Craftsman to Prairie, you will find very, very few people who are NOT taken with the Arts Crafts style.Tidewater: I love the tidewater houses. The wrap-around porches are efficient ventil ation systems. Living in the South, we are able to enjoy a lot of porch weather! Tropical Architecture: This is not a very recognized style but I love it because it addresses issues of the humid climate.Dutch Colonial: I like the dutch colonial revival with the gambrel roof, and also the standard colonial revival..Give Me a Ranch: I love the classic Raised Ranch. The home can be small in square footage but has potential to be designed in such a way that it feels bigger.Federalist Style House: The look of size is impressive in itself but the appearance of sturdiness and durability says home. Even Katrina couldnt blow this house down.Greek Revival: Greek Revival is American architecture at its besta style that is distinctly American for Americans. Chaste and classical, while formal and informal, yet beautiful and timeless are just a few of its many attractive qualities.Spanish: I absolutely love the Spanish-Mediterranean-Pueblo-Missionary type houses. They have a beautiful tropical warm appearance with a comfortable at home feel. Its like living a dream.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Business economy - Essay Example An excise tax is defined as a tax imposed on a specific amount per unit of product, and for this reason is sometimes also referred to as a specific tax (Keats & Young, 2005, p. 149). In contrast, there are ad valorem taxes such as sales taxes, which are imposed on the value or price of the product or service. Taxes imposed on Ã¢â¬Å"unhealthyÃ¢â¬ goods are also called Ã¢â¬Å"sin taxes.Ã¢â¬ They are usually state-sponsored taxes which legislators readily resort to at times when the government is seen to run a budget deficit and needs to raise funds. The taxpayers rarely protest any imposition or increase of sin taxes, for the reason that the tax is not imposed on the general public but only those who buy the product which is seen as harmful to them, anyway. Sin taxes may either be specific or ad valorem, and are generally imposed on cigarettes or tobacco, liquor, and gambling. (Investopedia, 2009) The price, income and cross-price elasticities of demand as well as the price elasticity of supply all bear on the effectivity of imposing sin taxes. Price elasticity measures changes in demand due to changes in prices of the good, income elasticity the changes in demand due to changes in the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s income, and the cross-price elasticity of demand changes in demand for a good due to a percentage change in the price of a related good. On the other hand, the price elasticity of supply refers to the percentage change in the quantity supplied for a good given the percentage change of price for that same good. These four elasticities are important in the determination of the tax incidence, though those that bear most directly are the price elasticities of demand and supply. This is because different commodities have different responses to increase in prices, and governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s selection of which commodities to tax and how much to tax will determine government revenue. Rose (2003) observes that this was considered by Adam Smith